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Six steps allow you to become a CNC programmer, how many steps have you taken?

Source: Browse:155 The release date:2021.11.10 [ Large medium small ]

No matter which line you are in, if you want to become a master, you must stand the experience of time and constantly improve your work ability. In the CNC machining industry, if you want to become a CNC master (metal cutting), you must graduate from university and enter the factory. At the very least, it will take more than 6 years. He needs not only the theoretical level of an engineer, but also the practical experience and hands-on ability of a senior technician. Today, Nobel Manufacturing will share with you: How to learn CNC machining well? It only takes six steps to become a master of CNC machine programming!


The first step: must be an excellent craftsman.

CNC machine tools integrate drilling, milling, boring, reaming, tapping and other processes. The technical literacy requirements of craftsmen are very high. Numerical control program is to use computer language to embody the process of processing technology. Craftsmanship is the basis of programming. If you don't understand the craftsmanship, you can never say that you know how to program.


In fact, when we choose the profession of mechanical cutting, it means that the early career is difficult and rough. The basic knowledge learned in the university is pitiful to meet the needs of the factory. Machining engineers are, to some extent, experienced engineers. Therefore, a lot of time must be with the workers, dry lathes, milling machines, grinders, machining centers, etc.; then in the office to edit the craft, estimate the material consumption, and calculate the quota. You must be familiar with the performance of various machine tools and the skill level of the workshop masters. In this way, after 2-3 years of practice, you can basically become a qualified craftsman. From my personal experience, I suggest that young college students who have just started to work must learn from the master workers with an humility. Once they can pass on their decades of experience to you, you can avoid many detours. Because these experiences cannot be learned from books, the choice of technology is a comprehensive consideration of equipment capabilities and personnel technical capabilities. Without the support and trust of employees, it is impossible to become an excellent craftsman. Through such a long time of study and accumulation, you should meet the following technical standards and requirements:


1. Familiar with the structure and process characteristics of drilling, milling, boring, grinding and planing machines,

2. Familiar with the properties of processed materials.

3. Solid basic knowledge of tool theory, master the conventional cutting amount of the tool, etc.

4. Familiar with the company's process specifications, guidelines, general requirements that can be achieved by various process processing, and process routes of conventional parts. Reasonable material consumption and working hours quota, etc.

5. Collect a certain amount of data on tools, machine tools, and mechanical standards. Particularly, you must be familiar with the tool system used in CNC machine tools.

6. Familiar with the selection and maintenance of coolant.

7. Have a common sense understanding of related types of work. For example: casting, electrical processing, heat treatment, etc.

8. Have a good fixture foundation. 

9. Understand the assembly requirements and use requirements of the processed parts.

10. Have a good foundation of measurement technology.


Step 2: Proficient in the application of CNC programming and computer software.

I think this is easier. There are only dozens of programming instructions, and various systems are similar. It usually takes 1-2 months to be very familiar. The automatic programming software is a little more complicated, and you need to learn styling. But for people with good cad foundation, it is not difficult. In addition, if it is manual programming, the foundation of analytical geometry is also good! Scholars are most adaptable to the learning of this knowledge. In practice, the criteria for a good procedure are:


1. Easy to understand and organized, everyone can understand it.

2. The fewer instructions in a block, the better, for the purpose of being simple, practical and reliable. From the perspective of programming, I think the commands are also G00 and G01, and the others are auxiliary commands, which are set to facilitate programming.

3. Convenient adjustment. It is best not to change the program when the machining accuracy of the parts needs to be fine-tuned. For example, if the tool is worn out, to adjust, just change the length and radius in the tool offset table.

4. Convenient operation. The programming should be compiled according to the operating characteristics of the machine tool, which is conducive to observation, inspection, measurement, safety and so on. For example, if the same kind of parts and the same processing content are processed separately in a vertical machining center and a horizontal machining center, the procedures are definitely different. In mechanical processing, the simplest method is the best method. As long as you have practical experience, you will definitely agree with this sentence!



Step 3: Be able to operate CNC machine tools proficiently.

This requires 1-2 years of learning, and the operation is very handy. Beginners, especially college students, know how to do it in their hearts, but they just dont listen. In this process, you must learn: system operation mode, fixture installation, part datum alignment, tool setting, zero offset setting, tool length compensation setting, radius compensation, loading and unloading of the tool and tool holder, and the cutting edge of the tool Grinding, measurement of parts (proficient in the use of vernier calipers, micrometer cards, dial indicators, dial indicators, inner diameter lever indicators), etc. The ones that best reflect the level of operation are: horizontal machining centers and large gantry (moving beams, top beams) machining centers.


The practice of operation requires savvy! Sometimes there is an artistic conception of "a leisurely mind, but it is difficult to talk to the king"!


In the CNC workshop, you can calm down and practice hard!

Generally speaking, the process from the processing of the first part to the qualified processing accuracy requires the CNC programming technician to complete it in person. You can't operate the machine proficiently, you can't pass this level.


Step 4: Must have a good tooling and fixture foundation and measurement technology level.


I list the tooling fixture and measurement technology separately because it is as important as the accuracy of the machine tool for the quality of parts processing, and it is one of the signs that reflect the level of the craftsman. The entire process system: the accuracy of the machine tool is guaranteed by the machine tool manufacturer, and the tools and cutting parameters are provided by the tool vendor. The general problem is not big. Only the tooling and fixture are specially designed for specific parts by the craftsman. Most of the parts on the CNC machine tool are There is a certain degree of difficulty, so there are often unpredictable problems. I have been engaged in CNC machine tool user parts cutting and debugging for more than 10 years, and I have never encountered a fixture that does not need to be rectified.


During commissioning, the first part was unqualified, and more than half of the reasons were caused by the unreasonable positioning of the fixture, the clamping pressure point, and the unreasonable clamping force. The difficulty in analyzing the cause of the fixture is that it can only be qualitative but difficult to quantify. If there is no experience in fixture design and part clamping, the difficulty will be great. In this study, it is recommended to consult the senior technicians who are doing precision jig boring machines. One of the basic skills of machining to accurately measure the level is to be able to use vernier calipers, micrometers, dial indicators, dial indicators, inner diameter lever meters, calipers, etc. proficiently. Sometimes parts processing, three-coordinate measuring machine can not be counted on. Must be measured manually. Just imagine, the parts are inaccurate. Which leader or worker will trust you?


It can take a long time to practice measurement techniques!


Step 5: Familiarize yourself with CNC machine tools. Proficient in the maintenance of CNC machine tools.

The so-called familiarity with CNC machine tools should:

1. Familiar with CNC electrical components and control principles. Can tell the name and function of each component in the electrical box, and understand the electrical schematic diagram. The alarm content can be found based on the electrical alarm number.


2. Understand the structure and transmission principle of the ball screw. Know which factors have a greater impact on the accuracy of the machine tool.


3. Understand the structure of the bearings at both ends of the machine tool screw and its influence on the accuracy of the machine tool.


4. Understand the lubrication system of the machine tool (bearings, main shafts, motion pairs, gearboxes, etc.), and know the distribution of lubrication points. The brand of machine lubricating oil and the normal consumption of oil every week or month.


5. Understand the cooling system of the machine tool: cutting (water, air) cooling, spindle cooling, electric box cooling, etc.


6. Understand the main transmission structure of the machine tool, and the specific data characteristics between the speed and torque of each machine tool.


7. Understand the characteristics of the machine tool guide rail pair: Is it a linear rail or a sliding rail, how rigid (carrying capacity)?


8. It can eliminate common operation faults (such as: exceeding limit, tool magazine tool number error, etc.)


9. Proficient in various precision (static and dynamic) indicators and detection methods of machine tools.


10. Familiar with the tool magazine mechanism and the principle of tool change.


For the above items, it is difficult to meet the requirements without exercise for more than 3 years. And many companies do not yet have the conditions to learn. It is recommended to consult the master of the equipment maintenance department.


I won't talk about the details of machine maintenance. Each company has its own experience and standards.


The main point of machine tool maintenance is to "raise", and you should pay attention to it at ordinary times (long-term records should be made):


1. It is very important to pay attention to whether the start load changes of each axis of the machine tool are normal every day. If the start load changes are not normal, it means that the resistance of the motion pair or transmission pair has changed. You must stop the machine for inspection. Otherwise, over time, the damage to the machine tool will be great;


2. Pay attention to the normal consumption of lubricating oil. Too much or too little must be checked.


3. Clean the air-conditioning filter and vent filter of the electric box frequently. Once the integrated circuit board of the power module and the drive module inside the electric box is stained with dust containing iron powder, the machine will give an inexplicable alarm, and the repair will not be possible. Just wait to change the board!


Step 6: Develop good habits and adapt to the characteristics of CNC machining.


(This one is my personal opinion. Whether it is reasonable or not, you can discuss it.)

The masters who are suitable for CNC machining should be humble, rigorous, calm, careful thinking, methodical and independent.


1. The processing of some large parts, not only has a lot of processing content, but also the conversion of three-dimensional coordinates in space. The calculation of the processing trajectory is very complicated and difficult to determine. If the problem is not considered meticulously and comprehensively, and the calculation is not accurate, the program modification becomes more chaotic when debugging, and the probability of error is greater. "Think twice before acting" is the most appropriate here.


2. The part debugging process is a process of multi-person cooperation, including operators, inspectors, fixture design, fixture assembly personnel, etc. When problems arise, you should consult them more, do more experiments, and avoid making arbitrary conclusions. Don't blame too much on employees who make mistakes, and have a "compassionate" mentality.


3. The work of the CNC machine tool is controlled by instructions. When debugging, you must be very clear about the track of the machine tool before pressing the "Start" button. Be rigorous and meticulous, and never let the machine tool move first. Once the program is wrong or the compensation parameters are incorrect, or the wrong coordinate system is selected. From scrapped parts, to serious accidents. Those who are grumpy, clueless, and do not change after repeated instruction are not suitable for the operation of CNC machine tools.


Let me tell you a fact: It turns out that our company has more than a dozen user debugging and cutting technologists, all of whom are well-informed and experienced, but none of them has not broken the tool in any year.


4. When there is a problem during debugging and processing, please calm down and never panic, and then misoperation occurs. The psychological quality is better.


5. When the parts are unqualified for many times during debugging, the analysis must be organized, and the responsibility must be based on basis. Some relevant departments will give various explanations for various reasons. At this time, you must have your own opinion and remember: it does not matter if you do one thing wrong, but you cannot choose the wrong way to do it.


6. A craftsperson always has limitations in technical ability due to environmental constraints. Coupled with the rapid development of technology, there is always room for improvement. When the internal technology of the factory has been digested, we must keep our eyes open and keep up with the advanced processing technology at home and abroad to learn and digest. Be a good adviser to the boss in terms of technology.


The above are the ideal CNC programming masters in my mind. In fact, in the final analysis, there should be programmers at the level of senior technologists and senior technicians.